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Building Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries
A lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is an advanced battery technology that uses lithium ions as a key component of its electrochemistry. During a discharge cycle, lithium atoms in the anode are ionized and separated from their electrons. The lithium ions move from the anode and pass through the electrolyte until they reach the cathode, where they recombine with their electrons and electrically neutralize. The lithium ions are small enough to be able to move through a micro-permeable separator between the anode and cathode. In part because of lithium’s small size (third only to hydrogen and helium), Li-ion batteries are capable of having a very high voltage and charge storage per unit mass and unit volume.
Safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy density becomes more and more important in the future for EVs development. The safety issues of the LIBs are complicated, related to both materials and the cell level. To ensure the safety of LIBs, in-depth understanding of the safety features, precise design of the battery materials and real-time monitoring/detection of the cells should be systematically considered. Here, we specifically summarize the safety features of the LIBs from the aspects of their voltage and temperature tolerance, the failure mechanism of the LIB materials and corresponding improved methods. We further review the in situ or operando techniques to real-time monitor the internal conditions of LIBs.
GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
IST R&D will accelerate the development of Solar PV Technologies by lowering the cost per watt of Photovoltaics (PV) and Thermal Applications. The six key SERIIUS objectives are the following:
- Focus efforts on high-impact fundamental and applied research and development (R&D) to create disruptive technologies in PV and Thermal Applications.
- Identify and quantify the critical technical, economic, and policy issues for solar energy development and deployment in India.
- Overcome barriers to technology transfer by teaming research institutions and industry in an effective project structure-cutting the time from discovery to technology development and commercialization, through effective coordination, communication, and intellectual property management.
- Tries to create a new platform for bi-national collaboration using a formalized R&D project structure, along with effective management, coordination, and decision processes.
- Create a sustainable network from which to build large collaborations and foster a collaborative culture and outreach programs. This will include the use of existing and new methodologies for collaboration based on advanced electronic and Web-based communication to facilitate functional international focused teams.
- Create a strong workforce development program in solar energy science and technology.